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European Field, By-Laws and Procedures

I. European Field Graduate Program

A.  Excerpts from the current Guide to Graduate Study, European Section, on the departmental website:

Graduate Program In Modern European History

UCLA offers both M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in European history, although there is no distinct M.A. program; students are admitted only for the Ph.D. degree. The Masters Degree is designed to satisfy requirements of the Department's doctoral program and is usually completed within two years. It consists of nine courses, six of which must be graduate courses. The other three can be chosen from among the Department's upper-division undergraduate offerings. For the M.A. degree, students must demonstrate proficiency in one approved European language; for the Ph.D., a second language must be completed. We expect students to finish the Ph.D. in six years of full-time study. They are required to do so in no more than seven years.

Foreign Language Requirements:

The field requires proficiency in two foreign languages: For those working on Europe: French and German, either of which can be replaced by another language necessary for research. For those working on Russian or Eastern European history: Russian plus German or French, any of which can be replaced by another one necessary for research.

Any substitutions must be approved by your adviser, the field coordinator and the vice chair for graduate studies. In all cases, proficiency in foreign languages is to be determined by an exam administered by the field. Exceptions to this rule must be approved by your adviser, the field coordinator, and the vice chair for graduate studies.

Course Requirements:

As a candidate for the Ph.D., you must meet (a) the special requirements for admission to the doctoral program listed above; and (b) the general requirements set forth under the Graduate Division. An excellent command of English, spoken and written, the ability to read at least two foreign languages, and an acquaintance with general history are expected of all candidates. You are required to complete at least TWO continuing two-quarter seminars. These seminars must include completion of substantial research papers based at least in part on primary sources.

All students must write a dissertation prospectus (which could be written for credit as a history 596 or 597) expected to contain: (a) a full statement of the dissertation topic; (b) a historiographical discussion of the literature bearing on the topic; (c) a statement of the methodology to be employed; and (d) a survey of the sources sufficient to demonstrate the viability of the topic. The prospectus must be approved by the dissertation adviser prior to the oral part of the qualifying examinations. After approval, copies will be given to each member of the examining committee.

Students of European History must complete History 225. Faculty serving on doctoral committees may require such courses as they deem necessary for preparation for qualifying examinations. Courses taken to fulfill M.A. degree requirements may also be used to satisfy Ph.D. requirements.

Written & Oral Qualifying Examinations:

Before admission to candidacy, students must pass written and oral examinations. In order to sit the writtens, the student must have passed at least one language exam.  The student must also have completed History 225, one two-quarter research seminar and the minimum number of other courses required during the first five quarters.  The student must also have at least started a second two-quarter research seminar by the time of the writtens.  Incompletes in courses beyond this minimum requirement will not prevent the student from taking the written examination.

All students in the European field will take the written qualifying examination after five quarters in residence. The European written examination will be administered at the end of the winter quarter. The field, at the Assessment Meeting, may allow those failing one section of the examination to retake that part before June 30th of the same year. Those who in the judgment of the field at the Assessment Meeting fail the entire examination may retake it on petition the following year, unless they are offered only a terminal MA, in which case their tenure in the department has come to an end.  The examination may be retaken only once.

The entire European faculty in residence will administer the exam. The exam will be divided into the following sections: Europe, 1400-1650; Europe, 1550-1800; Europe since 1740; European Social and Economic History since ca. 1450; European Intellectual and Cultural History since ca. 1450; Russia since ca. 800; Jewish History; East Central and Southeast Europe since ca. 1450; Germany since ca. 1450; Britain since ca. 1450; France since ca. 1450; Italy since ca. 1450; Spain and Portugal since ca. 1450; The Low Countries since ca. 1450; European History of Science Since ca. 1450; Women’s History. Students will choose three sections in which to be examined. Each section will have approximately ten questions overall. The entire exam will last three days. It will be administered in the history department and take place from 10 a.m. - 3 p.m. on three consecutive days. The students may choose the order of the examinations.

Prior to taking the written qualifying examination, a student must have secured the agreement of a qualified member of the Department in the European Field to serve as chair of the doctoral committee. The examination is intended to test a comprehensive, broad understanding of European history, both of the modern and early modern periods. Different facets of history (political, social, intellectual, etc.) are included. An ability to synthesize factual information, sometimes across long chronological periods is, consequently, essential. Knowledge of the scholarly literature and of the principal historiographical controversies arising out of it will be tested, along with interpretive capabilities. Questions relating to the planning of college-level history courses may appear on the exam. Before taking the written exam, the student must have passed at least one language exam.

In the oral qualifying examination, normally scheduled in the third year of doctoral study, students will be examined in four fields, one of which may be an approved field outside the department, such as anthropology, economics, geography, language and literature, philosophy, political science, or other allied subjects. This allied field must be comparable in size and scope to the history fields listed above. Students should select the fields in consultation with the faculty adviser.

Students must choose their four fields in the spring quarter of the year the writtens are taken, ie normally the sixth quarter of study.  Students obtain the "Field Committee Orals" form (orals committee) from the Graduate Office. A copy of "Steps for the Orals" can be obtained from the Graduate Office.

The oral examination will concern the dissertation prospectus and the substantive elements of the four fields as they relate to the prospectus. During the fall quarter following the successful completion of the written exams, ie normally during the third year of study, each student will be required to select appropriate faculty members from the four fields and to meet with the committee to discuss strategies for preparing the dissertation prospectus and the fields relating to the prospectus. The oral examination will normally take place at the end of nine quarters of residence but must be taken by the end of the twelfth quarter. The second language exam must be passed before taking the oral examination. Should a student fail the oral exam, he or she must retake it at a time set by the committee within six months. Any variance from time limits must be approved by the European field before going to the Graduate Guidance and Curriculum Committee for final approval.

B. Notes on the graduate program, as outlined above

1. Given the university rules about residence and course requirements, and our own rules about fulfilling the requirements for research seminars (two during the first 6 quarters of residence) and passing the written exam based on a broad and extensive program of reading, students should not go abroad during the regular teaching Quarters during the first three quarters to do research.  To go away during the second year requires a petition to the dissertation advisor, the Field Coordinator and the Vice Chair for Graduate Affairs.  Any deviation from this rule should be communicated to the Field Coordinator, who in turn will discuss the matter with the field.

2. Entering graduate students must possess a demonstrated competence in at least one foreign language, related to their proposed field of study. Students may not take the written exams before passing at least one language exam. Language exams must always be administered by the department, and no student can petition out of an exam through the Vice Chair for graduate studies or petition to substitute another form.

3. Individual faculty members are assigned by the Field Coordinator to administer language exams in the Fall and Spring quarters. The exam shall be given in such a form as to demonstrate competent reading knowledge. The recognized languages are French and German, OR Spanish, Italian, Dutch, or Russian for those working on the history of countries in which these are necessary languages.  Substitutions may be made according to the student’s research area, but any substitutions must be approved by the adviser, the field coordinator, and the vice chair for graduate studies.  All petitions for exceptions to the language requirements must be decided upon by a committee composed of the student’s adviser, the field coordinator, and the department graduate vice-chair. There will be no exceptions to this rule. The field will not accept petitions signed by any dean or the Vice-chair alone. The Field Coordinator will communicate the results of all language petitions to the Field as a whole.

4. The two two-quarter research seminars must be completed before the MA is awarded and should be taken within the first two years of study. The research seminars must be substantial, regularly offered seminars and may not be substituted with History 596 or 597 or some other form of ad hoc arrangement with individual students. Students in the first two years may not sign up for History 596 or 597 to satisfy a course requirement.

5. The entire European faculty in residence will administer the written exam. No individual faculty member can opt out of taking part in the annual written exams. Exams should never be written with specific students in mind, and in principle, students should not know who the examiners are for any particular section of the exam. The rules to ourselves emphasize that the entire field administers the exam. A student must have chosen a faculty adviser before taking the written exam, and it is the responsibility of the Field Coordinator to see that this rule is respected.

6. The allied field for the oral exam must be comparable in size and scope to the history fields. Note that there is some confusion in this regard. A student may take four fields within the history department, but if he or she does that, there has to be an outside examiner from another department. The student is not required to work with that faculty member, and the examiner is not responsible for asking substantive questions from his own discipline. But if the student does 3 fields within the department and one outside, that field has to be equal to the examined field in history and the student must do comparable work with the faculty member. Students should select the fields in consultation with the faculty adviser. Students must choose their four fields by the fall quarter after they have successfully passed the written qualifying examination (i.e., normally by the seventh quarter of residency). It is the job of the Field Coordinator to see that all students fulfill this requirement in the Fall Quarter.

7. Each student will be required to select appropriate faculty members from the four fields and to meet with each faculty member during the spring quarter following satisfactory completion of the written qualifying exam to discuss strategies for preparing the dissertation prospectus and the fields relating to the prospectus.

8. A second language must be passed before taking the oral exam. It is up to the Field Coordinator to see that this rule is respected.

II. The nature of the written exam

1. Students must select three sections from the whole exam list. Each section is to last 5 hours, which time includes any and all breaks.  Each student is required to answer two questions during that time.  The exam is to be administered over 3 days.

2. The Field Coordinator, in consultation with the Field, will decide on the precise mechanics of administering the exam to ensure impartiality and fairness and announce these to the students taking it at the beginning of the year.

3. All of the national and “genre” sections begin at the Renaissance, except for Russian history, which begins in the 9th century. Each exam is divided into an “early modern” and “modern” section and students are required to answer one question from each.

4. Each exam will consist of ten questions among which students may choose.

5. The exam will take place at the beginning of the spring break which follows the end of the Winter Quarter.

6. The exams are closed book.

7. Students must register for the exam, picking their three fields, by the end of the Fall Quarter preceding the exam.

8. All the faculty in residence during the Winter Quarter will set, grade, and evaluate the exam. Each exam section will be set by and graded by two examiners, one of whom will be appointed to coordinate the section. The completed exam section questions will be submitted to the Exam Coordinator by a date set by him or her, but no later than March 1. The examiners may ask for questions from other members of the faculty. Each of the two examiners for a section must read all the answers of an exam and grade students with grades of  pass, fail, high pass.  The grades of all examiners will be communicated to the Exam Coordinator.  Each exam section is to be set and graded by two examiners--the grading to be done independently.

9. Examiners are to submit grades by the end of the week following the termination of the exam.  Grades may be Pass, High Pass, or Fail.

10. Examination Committee: The Field Coordinator will appoint an Exam Committee of three to gather and collate the exam sections from the coordinators and to oversee the exam procedures. Its chair will be the Field Coordinator.  It will be the Exam Committee’s  responsibility to check the exams for balance, spread, conformity to the rules, ambiguities, and grammar.  Those setting the overarching sections, such as “Europe from the Reformation to the French Revolution” or “Economic and Social History since 1450,” should remember that Europe includes Eastern Europe and Russia. Everyone should pay attention to the fact that gender and minorities are part of European history.

11. The Exam Coordinator will inform students and faculty of the dates of the upcoming exam and Assessment Meeting before the end of the Fall Quarter

12. The Field Coordinator will determine which faculty will be in residence during the Spring Winter Quarter and will assign examiners to each section of the exam, being sure to assign one of the two examiners of each section to position of coordinator of that particular exam section. It is the job of each exam section coordinator to furnish the finished exam sections to the Examination Committee. Information about examiners, i.e., the names of particular examiners, is not to be communicated to the graduate secretary or to the students.

13. Examiners may consult previous exams, all of which are available in the Graduate Secretary’s office. They must consult the official reading lists that are provided for the students. The Exam Coordinator will insure that each examiner has an up-to-date copy of the relevant reading list. Since students are in part preparing for the exam by reading, exams should be set with this in mind and should not be tailored to particular faculty members’ interests or courses, nor tailored to the specialized interests of particular students. All time periods should be covered and a suitable number of subjects offered.   Remember that current students will be consulting old exams to see how they should study.

14. The Field Coordinator will send a letter to each student about the results of the exam and the Assessment Meeting. For students who fail, the letter should spell out the options available. For students who pass, the letter should explain the next steps – choosing fields and committee members (with relevant deadlines), passing outstanding language exams, the dissertation prospectus, the orals.

15. Assessment Meeting: all faculty in resident are required to attend the Assessment Meeting, whether or not they have participated in the exam. Discussion of each student will be based on the entire record, including the grades from the exam, the results of the language exams, and all the grades for research seminars, other courses, and History 225.  Students are required to submit the papers written for their two two-quarter seminars as part of the evaluation undertaken at the meeting.  We should distinguish between the examination and the assessment (based on the entire record). Taking the entire record into account, a student can be assessed with a pass, a terminal MA, or no pass (with the student’s option to take a terminal MA or to retake the exam the following year or satisfy the Field’s request for suitable performance in a seminar, etc.), or a high pass. The field can also require that a student retake one section of the exam by the end of the following June (two months later), or retake the entire exam the following year. In any event, the exam has to follow the same procedure as before: 2 examiners, with a full report to the field as a whole (communicated through the Field Coordinator). It is also possible for the meeting to conclude that a student has to make up other deficiencies. The Assessment Meeting shall take place on the second Monday after the conclusion of the exam.

III. Teaching duties

1. Given the rules of the department, each faculty member is expected to teach four courses per year. Two of these should be lecture course, distributed among upper and lower division course offerings.

2. With regards to the undergraduate curriculum, the field is expected to offer the courses now in the catalogue in a “rational” rotation. Each faculty member with a full four-course load obligation should have four lecture courses that could be offered in rotation according to the needs of the field.  The idea behind this was to insure that the 121 (the six courses in the History of Modern Europe series) and 122 (the six courses in the Intellectual and Cultural history of  Europe), and 123 (War and Diplomacy in Europe) series, together with the national histories were offered with suitable frequencies. The normal teaching schedule would therefore be to teach a national history every other year and take part in the general course offerings every year. To the general histories can be added History 134, Economic History of Europe, and 135 (Europe and the World).

3. History 121 and 122 will be given priority. In so far as possible, the courses in these sequences will be given in sequence during the year.

4. National histories should continue to be offered every other year (complete and in sequence). For Russian history, which attracts significant numbers, the sequence can still be offered each year. Twentieth-century German history also seems to attract enough numbers to be an exception.

5. For those faculty who do not have four courses available, they should plan to add courses to arrive at the requisite number. There are faculty who have reduced teaching loads or are here for only two quarters per year and thus offer only one lecture course per year. They should have two or three courses that can be offered according to the needs of the program.

6. Producing a viable program will be devolved upon the field. We will have to develop collective responsibility and maintain discipline among ourselves. Since we will have to staff the graduate courses and undergraduate seminars in sufficient number, there will be occasional times when individual faculty will be asked to substitute a seminar for a lecture course, but this is not an option for individuals to determine.  The field coordinator will provide a grid for the coming year and discuss with individual faculty ways of shifting ground to meet the needs of the program. Subsequently, the field will meet to ratify the schedule. The objective is to offer a coherent program, while maintaining as much freedom as possible to the teaching faculty to develop and teach the courses that they choose.

7. Graduate Research Seminars. In order for the graduate students to complete the program on time, there has to be one two-quarter research seminar begining each Quarter. One or two others can be added in order to meet specialized needs of students, but the Field makes a collective decision at the annual scheduling meeting. Any changes subsequent to that meeting should be communicated to the Field Coordinator and then to the Field as a whole to discuss and ratify. There should be a sufficient number of broadly conceived  research seminars to accommodate the diversity of our students. A faculty member who intends to cap the number of students should warn the Field Coordinator ahead of time, so that an adequate number of seminars will be available. Research seminars should rotate among the faculty, with due consideration for the number of students who study with particular faculty members. Faculty should not expect to have a research seminar more frequently than every second year.

8. In 2011 it was decided that Emeriti on recall would not be allowed to teach in the Winter Quarter.

III. Duties of the Field Coordinator

1. According to the Departmental By-Laws, the following come under the heading of duties of the Field Coordinator:

a) The Chair chooses in consultation with Field members a Field Coordinator. The Chair may choose to grant the right of appointment or election to the field itself.

b) The Field Coordinator shall be responsible for scheduling classes taught by Field members and work in coordination with the Vice Chair for Undergraduate Affairs.

c) The Field Coordinator shall be responsible for appointing committees within the field.

d) The Field shall advise the department through a committee of its members, on admissions to and continuing students in its area.

e) The Field may advise the Department, through the Advisory Committee, on its coverage needs.

2. The Field Coordinator is responsible for drawing up a roster of faculty to administer language exams that will be carried over from year to year, assuring fairness in the allocation of this task. This should be posted on the Faculty Intranet, so that it can be carried over from Field Coordinator to Field Coordinator.

3. The Field Coordinator will request in December before the written exams that students register for the exams and indicate who their faculty adviser is.

4. The Field Coordinator, acting as Exam Coordinator, will announce in December the relevant dates for the written exams and will appoint the faculty in residence during the Winter Quarter as Examiners, allocating tasks for each section of the exam. The dates are: deadline for the submission of exam questions, the deadline for the meeting of the Examining Committee, the exam dates, and the date for the Assessment Meeting.

5. During the Fall Quarter, the Field Coordinator will request from all students who have passed the Assessment in the spring the list of four fields that he or she will be examined in for the oral exam and the names of faculty on the committee.

6. The Field Coordinator will chair the Assessment Committee following the Written Exams at the end of the Winter Quarter.

7. After faculty have submitted their proposed schedules, the FC will coordinate the whole so that courses can be given in sequence and that undergraduate and graduate seminars and lecture courses are offered to suit field needs. The Field Coordinator will schedule a Field meeting to finalize and ratify the teaching schedule for the coming year.

8. The Field Coordinator shall oversee the language exams, forming a committee of the Field Coordinator, the faculty adviser, and the Vice Chair for Graduate Studies to deal with any deviations from the rules or any substitutions from Field conventions. The FC will show vigilance to see that the field rules are not short-circuited by signatures from deans, chairs, or vice-chairs.

9. The Field Coordinator shall consult the Field if any student wishes to make a change in the residence requirements, or if any student wishes to deviate from the time limits established by the program.

10. The Field Coordinator shall send a letter to each student following the Assessment meeting, informing him or her of the results of the Assessment and outlining the next steps for study, etc.

11. The Field Coordinator  shall circulate minutes from each meeting of the Field and incorporate changes in the Field By-laws and in the Department Guide to Graduate Study.

12. In consultation with the departmental computer staff, the Field Coordinator shall create and maintain a section for European Faculty in the Faculty Intranet site containing the By-laws and agenda and minutes of all meetings, and the language exam roster.