UCLA History Faculty Publications
The Indian Ocean in World History
By Edward A. Alpers
The Indian Ocean remains the least studied of the world's geographic regions. Yet there have been major cultural exchanges across its waters and around its shores from the third millennium B.C.E. to the present day. Historian Edward A. Alpers explores the complex issues involved in cultural exchange in the Indian Ocean Rim region over the course of this long period of time by combining a historical approach with the insights of anthropology, art history, ethnomusicology, and geography.
Sidis and Scholars, Essays on African Indians
Edited by Edward A. Alpers and Amy Catlin-Jairazbhoy
This exciting collection of essays brings together scholars from a wide range of disciplines to explore the history and present circumstances of one of India's least known minority groups, the African Indians. The essays focus on two different communities of African Indians - the Sidis of Gujarat and the Sidis of Uttara Kannada. They illumine various aspects of the life of Sidis in contemporary India, their worship at the Sufi shrine of Gori Pir, their music and dance, their liminal existence and their agonizing dilemmas and predicament in the complex mosaic that is present-day India.
Spectrum: From Right to Left in the World of Ideas
By Perry Anderson
Renowned historian, Perry Anderson, takes on leading conservative, liberal and socialist thinkers in one iconoclastic volume. In today's drastic reconfiguration of the world of ideas, how best should we treat its leading forces? Spectrum offers a critical survey of the work of key conservative, liberal and socialist thinkers, rarely considered in the same optic.
Shores of Knowledge
By Joyce Appleby
An engrossing history of the voyages of exploration that ignited curiosity about nature and gave birth to modern science.
When Columbus first returned to Spain from the Caribbean, he dazzled King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella with exotic parrots, tropical flowers, and bits of gold. Inspired by the promise of riches, countless seafarers poured out of the Iberian Peninsula and wider Europe in search of spices, treasure, and land. Many returned with strange tales of the New World.
Eminent historian Joyce Appleby vividly recounts the explorers’ triumphs and mishaps, including Magellan’s violent death in the Philippines; the miserable trek of the “new Argonauts” across the Andes on their mission to determine the true shape of the earth; and how two brilliant scientists, Alexander Humboldt and Charles Darwin, traveled to the Americas for evidence to confirm their hypotheses about the earth and its inhabitants. Drawing on detailed eyewitness accounts, Appleby also tells of the turmoil created in the all societies touched by the explorations.
This sweeping, global story imbues the Age of Discovery with fresh meaning, elegantly charting its stimulation of the natural sciences, which ultimately propelled Western Europe toward modernity.
Beyond Words: Discourse and Critical Agency in Africa
By Andrew Apter
Even within anthropology, colonialist depictions of the so-called Dark Continent run deep. The grand narratives, tribal tropes, distorted images, and “natural” histories that forged the foundations of discourse about Africa remain firmly entrenched. In Beyond Words, Andrew Apter explores how anthropology can come to terms with the “colonial library” and begin to develop an ethnographic practice that transcends the politics of Africa’s imperial past.
The Pan-African Nation: Oil and the Spectacle Culture in Nigeria
By Andrew Apter
When Nigeria hosted the Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) in 1977, it celebrated a global vision of black nationhood and citizenship animated by the exuberance of its recent oil boom. Andrew Apter's The Pan-African Nation tells the full story of this cultural extravaganza, from Nigeria's spectacular rebirth as a rapidly developing petro-state to its dramatic demise when the boom went bust. (Published by the University of Chicago Press.)
American Confluence: The Missouri Frontier From Borderland to Border State
By Stephen Aron
In the heart of North America, the Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers come together, uniting waters from west, north, and east on a journey to the south. This is the region that Stephen Aron calls the "American Confluence". His innovative book examines the history of that region;a home to the Osage, a colony exploited by the French, and a new frontier explored by Lewis and Clark. Aron focuses on the region's transition from a place of overlapping borderlands to one of oppositional Border States. American Confluence is a lively account that should delight amateur and professional historians alike.
From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean
By Sebouh Aslanian
Drawing on a rich trove of documents, including correspondence not seen for 300 years, this study explores the emergence and growth of a remarkable global trade network operated by Armenian silk merchants from a small outpost in the Persian Empire. Based in New Julfa, Isfahan, in what is now Iran, these merchants operated a network of commercial settlements that stretched from London and Amsterdam to Manila and Acapulco. The New Julfan Armenians were the only Eurasian community that was able to operate simultaneously and successfully in all the major empires of the early modern world—both land-based Asian empires and the emerging sea-borne empires—astonishingly without the benefits of an imperial network and state that accompanied and facilitated European mercantile expansion during the same period. This book brings to light for the first time the trans-imperial cosmopolitan world of the New Julfans. Among other topics, it explores the effects of long distance trade on the organization of community life, the ethos of trust and cooperation that existed among merchants, and the importance of information networks and communication in the operation of early modern mercantile communities.
The Folklore of the Freeway - Race and Revolt in the Modernist City
By Eric Avila
When the interstate highway program connected America’s cities, it also divided them, cutting through and devastating countless communities—many of them minority urban neighborhoods lacking the political and economic power to resist the construction. Within the context of the 1960s and 1970s, Eric Avila maps the creative strategies devised by urban communities to document and protest the damage that highways wrought.
Popular Culture in the Age of White Flight
By Eric Avila
Los Angeles pulsed with economic vitality and demographic growth in the decades following World War II. This vividly detailed cultural history of L.A. from 1940 to 1970 traces the rise of a new suburban consciousness adopted by a generation of migrants who abandoned older American cities for So. California's booming urban region. Eric Avila explores expressions of this new "white identity" in popular culture with provocative discussions of Hollywood and film noir, Dodger Stadium, Disneyland, and L.A.'s renowned freeways. These institutions not only mirrored this new culture of suburban whiteness and helped shape it, but also, as Avila argues, reveal the profound relationship between the increasingly fragmented urban landscape of Los Angeles and the rise of a new political outlook that rejected the tenets of New Deal liberalism and anticipated the emergence of the New Right. Eric Avila offers a unique argument about the restructuring of urban space in the two decades following WWII and the role played by new suburban spaces in dramatically transforming the political culture of the U.S. Avila's work helps us see how and why the postwar suburb produced the political culture of 'balanced budget conservatism' that is now the dominant force in politics, how the eclipse of the New Deal since the 1970s represents not only a change of views but also an alteration of spaces.
The Copyright Wars: Three Centuries of Trans-Atlantic Battle by Peter BaldwinToday’s copyright wars can seem unprecedented. Sparked by the digital revolution that has made copyright—and its violation—a part of everyday life, fights over intellectual property have pitted creators, Hollywood, and governments against consumers, pirates, Silicon Valley, and open-access advocates. But while the digital generation can be forgiven for thinking the dispute between, for example, the publishing industry and Google is completely new, the copyright wars in fact stretch back three centuries—and their history is essential to understanding today’s battles. The Copyright Wars—the first major trans-Atlantic history of copyright from its origins to today—tells this important story.
Peter Baldwin explains why the copyright wars have always been driven by a fundamental tension. Should copyright assure authors and rights holders lasting claims, much like conventional property rights, as in Continental Europe? Or should copyright be primarily concerned with giving consumers cheap and easy access to a shared culture, as in Britain and America? The Copyright Wars describes how the Continental approach triumphed, dramatically increasing the claims of rights holders. The book also tells the widely forgotten story of how America went from being a leading copyright opponent and pirate in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to become the world’s intellectual property policeman in the late twentieth. As it became a net cultural exporter and its content industries saw their advantage in the Continental ideology of strong authors’ rights, the United States reversed position on copyright, weakening its commitment to the ideal of universal enlightenment—a history that reveals that today’s open-access advocates are heirs of a venerable American tradition.
Disease and Democracy: The Industrialized World Faces AIDS
By Peter Baldwin
Disease and Democracy is the first comparative analysis of how Western democratic nations have coped with AIDS. Peter Baldwin's exploration of divergent approaches to the epidemic in the United States and several European nations is a springboard for a wide-ranging and sophisticated historical analysis of public health practices and policies. In addition to his comprehensive presentation of information on approaches to AIDS, Baldwin's authoritative book provides a new perspective on our most enduring political dilemma: how to reconcile individual liberty with the safety of the community.
Baldwin finds that Western democratic nations have adopted much more varied approaches to AIDS than is commonly recognized. He situates the range of responses to AIDS within the span of past attempts to control contagious disease and discovers the crucial role that history has played in developing these various approaches. Baldwin finds that the various tactics adopted to fight AIDS have sprung largely from those adopted against the classic epidemic diseases of the nineteenth century--especially cholera--and that they reflect the long institutional memories embodied in public health institutions.
First Century Slavery & 1 Corinthians 7:21
By Scott Bartchy
Scott Bartchy serves as Professor of Christian Origins and the History of Religion in the Department of History, University of California, Los Angeles, and as Director of the Center for the Study of Religion at UCLA. An honors graduate of Milligan College, he earned his M.Div. from Harvard Divinity School and his Ph.D. in New Testament & Christian Origins from Harvard University, following which he taught in the Protestant Faculty of the University of Tuebingen, Germany and became the Director of the Institute zur Erforschung des Urchristentums there. He also has taught at Emmanuel School of Religion. Since the original appearance of this book Bartchy has continued to publish his research on ancient slavery, gender roles, and community formation in relation to Paul's letters and the traditions about Jesus of Nazareth.
An Economic History of Nineteenth-Century Europe
By Ivan Berend
Why did some countries and regions of Europe reach high levels of economic advancement in the nineteenth century, while others were left behind? This new transnational survey of the continent's economic development highlights the role of regional differences in shaping each country's economic path and outcome. Presenting a clear and cogent explanation of the historical causes of advancement and backwardness, Ivan Berend integrates social, political, institutional and cultural factors as well as engaging in debates about the relative roles of knowledge, the state and institutions. Featuring boxed essays on key personalities including Adam Smith, Friedrich List, Gustave Eiffel and the Krupp family, as well as brief histories of innovations such as the steam engine, vaccinations and the co-operative system, the book helps to explain the theories and macro-economic trends that dominated the century and their impact on the subsequent development of the European economy right up to the present day.
History Derailed: Decades of Crisis: Central and Eastern Europe before World War II
By Ivan Berend
History Derailed succeeds in capturing the common as well as the diverse features of the parts of a notoriously complex region during the period from the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 to the start of WWI. The opening chapter provides an effective synthesis on the origins of backwardness in the region, from the second serfdom in the Baltic region to Ottoman domination in the Balkans. But Berend also demonstrates that Balkan societies were themselves resistant to the modernizing impulses coming from the West. An economic historian, the author is equally good at covering cultural and political developments, especially the grand appeal of romantic nationalism. By showing how modernized, literary languages were reformed and even invented by nationalist intellectuals, Berend sides with those scholars who believe in the constructed nature of ethnic and national identities. Yet he is also keenly aware that nationalism developed upon preexisting religious and regional identities. The later chapters depict the belated, and incomplete, industrialization and the conflicts between democratic and authoritarian politics.
Gender and Morality in Anglo-American Culture, 1650-1800
By Ruth Bloch
Ruth Bloch's stellar essays on the origins of Anglo-American conceptions of gender and morality are brought together in this valuable book, which collects six of her most influential pieces and includes two new essays. The volume addresses a basic historical question: Why did the attitudes toward gender and family relations that we now consider traditional values emerge when they did? Bloch looks deeply into eighteenth-century culture to answer this question, highlighting long-term developments in religion, intellectual history, law, and literature, showing that the eighteenth century was a time of profound transformation for women's roles as wives and mothers, for ideas about sexuality, and for notions of female moral authority. She engages topics from British moral philosophy to colonial laws regarding courtship, and from the popularity of the sentimental novel to the psychology of religious revivalism. Lucid, provocative, and wide-ranging, these eight essays bring a revisionist challenge to both women's studies and cultural studies as they ask us to reconsider the origins of the system of gender relations that has dominated American culture for two hundred years.
The Economics of Global Turbulence
By Robert Brenner
Robert Brenner charts the turbulent post-war history of the global system and unearths the mechanisms of over-production and over-competition which lie behind its long-term crisis since the early 1970s. He thereby demonstrates the thoroughly systematic factors behind wage repression, high unemployment and unequal development, and raises disturbing and far-reaching questions about the global economy's future trajectory.
The Dominican Republic Reader: History, Culture, Politics
Edited by Robin Derby, Eric Roorda, Raymundo Gonzalez
Despite its significance in the history of Spanish colonialism, the Dominican Republic is familiar to most outsiders through only a few elements of its past and culture. Non-Dominicans may be aware that the country shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti and that it is where Christopher Columbus chose to build a colony. Some may know that the country produces talented baseball players and musicians; others that it is a prime destination for beach vacations. Little else about the Dominican Republic is common knowledge outside its borders. This Reader seeks to change that. It provides an introduction to the history, politics, and culture of the country, from precolonial times into the early twenty-first century. Among the volume's 118 selections are essays, speeches, journalism, songs, poems, legal documents, testimonials, and short stories, as well as several interviews conducted especially for this Reader.
Through Women's Eyes: An American History
By Ellen Dubois and Lynn Dumenil
The first book for the survey course to combine narrative and documents in a comprehensive volume. Through Women's Eyes offers fresh, substantive sources that reinforce and extend the historical synthesis. Each chapter is organized into three closely integrated sections: narrative, documentary essays, and visual essays. By combining narrative history with textual and visual evidence, the book explicitly models for students how historians work, how the questions they ask shape the history they write, and how these questions change over time. Plentiful cross-references, Questions for Consideration, and document headnotes underscore the connections between the narrative and essays while fostering students' skills in source analysis. Ellen Carol DuBois and Lynn Dumenil bring their command of the scholarship and their extensive experience in teaching the U.S. survey and women's history and in writing texts for undergraduates to the creation of this path-breaking textbook for the American women's history course.
History and the Testimony of Language
By Christopher Ehret
This book is about history and the practical power of language to reveal historical change. Christopher Ehret offers a methodological guide to applying language evidence in historical studies. He demonstrates how these methods allow us not only to recover the histories of time periods and places poorly served by written documentation, but also to enrich our understanding of well-documented regions and eras. A leading historian as well as historical linguist of Africa, Ehret provides in-depth examples from the language phyla of Africa, arguing that his comprehensive treatment can be applied by linguistically trained historians and historical linguists working with any language and in any area of the world.
Edited by Benjamin A. Elman, John B. Duncan Herman Ooms
Written by Benjamin A. Elman, John B. Duncan, and Herman Ooms, this ambitious volume brings together a group of distinguished scholars who have worked together over five years' time in an attempt to explain the present pan-Asian revival of Confucianism a century after it was declared moribund by leading philosophers and thinkers in China and Japan as well as in the West. This collaborative study of China and its historical sphere of influence in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam begins by clearly establishing the principal threads that made up Confucian thought in the period of its unchallenged eminence. It also examines the pitfalls of Western scholars who have tended to lump together as Confucianism many diverse currents of Chinese and other Asian classical thought. Uniquely, the book explores as well traditional Confucian views of issues such as gender, medicine, and ritual, and examines the reasons given by leading Asian and Western scholars for rejecting Confucianism at the end of the nineteenth century.
Divided Houses: Religion and Gender in Modern France
By Caroline Ford
Caroline Ford examines how the so-called feminization of religion in France from the French Revolution to the First World War contributed to the formation of a distinctive secular (laïc) republican political culture in France. She also reveals the effect of women’s close association with religion on their civil and social status, which gave rise in France to heated debates about the limits of female agency, women’s property rights, and women’s role in the family and in society. She argues that religious women were often far more than the passive instruments of a male ecclesiastical hierarchy. In showing that these women could dispose of their bodies, souls, and properties in ways that were unimaginable to their secular counterparts, Ford’s book obliges one to rethink the categories of tradition and modernity that have structured most thinking about this subject. Ford’s book is centered on a set of micro-histories and causes célèbres whose narratives are fascinating in and of themselves. They include conflicts within religious orders, the cults of some latter-day female saints, and riveting legal disputes involving women who converted to Catholicism. The fact that women have been portrayed as the quintessential carriers of religion ever since France embraced laïcite sheds light on problems faced by the secular French state today as it attempts to regulate religious expression—including emblems of Islam—in the public sphere.
Franz Kafka: The Poet of Shame and Guilt
By Saul Friedlander
Professor Saul Friedlander’s stimulating book investigates some of the sources of Franz Kafka’s personal anguish and its complex reflections in his imaginary world. In his query, Saul Friedländer probes major aspects of Kafka’s life (family, Judaism, love and sex, writing, illness, and despair) that until now have been skewed by posthumous censorship. Contrary to Kafka’s dying request that all his papers be burned, Max Brod, Kafka’s closest friend and literary executor, edited and published the author’s novels and other works soon after his death in 1924. Friedländer shows that, when reinserted in Kafka’s letters and diaries, deleted segments lift the mask of “sainthood” frequently attached to the writer and thus restore previously hidden aspects of his individuality.
Women at the Beginning: Origin Myths from the Amazons to the Virgin Mary
By Patrick J. Geary
In these four artfully crafted essays, Patrick Geary explores the way ancient and medieval authors wrote about women. Geary describes the often marginal role women played in origin legends from antiquity until the twelfth century. Not confining himself to one religious tradition or region, he probes the tensions between women in biblical, classical, and medieval myths (such as Eve, Mary, Amazons, princesses, and countesses), and actual women in ancient and medieval societies. Using these legends as a lens through which to study patriarchal societies, Geary chooses moments and texts that illustrate how ancient authors (all of whom were male) confronted the place of women in their society. Unlike other books on the subject, Women at the Beginning attempts to understand not only the place of women in these legends, but also the ideologies of the men who wrote about them. The book concludes that the authors of these stories were themselves struggling with ambivalence about women in their own worlds and that this struggle manifested itself in their writings.
The Israel-Palestine Conflict
By James L. Gelvin
James L. Gelvin's new account of the century-old conflict between Israelis and Palestinians presents a compelling, accessible and up-to-the-moment introduction for students and general readers. Placing events in the disputed area within the framework of global history, the book skillfully interweaves biographical sketches, eyewitness accounts, poetry, fiction and official documentation into its narrative, including photographs, maps and an abundance of supplementary material as well. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century in Palestine, it traces the evolution and interactions of the two communities from their first encounters up to the present conflict.
Practicing Stalinism: Bolsheviks, Boyars, and the Persistence of Tradition
By J. Arch Getty
Yezhov: The Rise of Stalin's "Iron Fist"
By J. Arch Getty and Oleg V. Naumov
Head of the secret police from 1937 to 1938, N. I. Yezhov was a foremost Soviet leader during these years, second in power only to Stalin himself. Under Yezhov’s orders, millions of arrests, imprisonments, deportations, and executions were carried out. This book, based upon unprecedented access to Communist Party archives and Yezhov’s personal archives, looks into the life and career of the enigmatic man who administered Stalin’s Great Terror.
J. Arch Getty and Oleg V. Naumov seek to answer a series of troubling questions. What kind of person calmly and efficiently sends thousands of innocent people to their deaths? What could prepare a man for such a role? How could a person whom acquaintances describe as friendly, pleasant, and even gallant carry out one of history’s most horrifying campaigns of terror? The authors uncover the full details of Yezhov’s rise to power and conclude that he was not merely Stalin’s tool but a skillful maneuverer in his own right. The historical documents provide a thorough portrait of Yezhov and reveal a man of fanatical dedication to his leader and his party—a man who became a willing murderer. Readers will find his story chilling, the more so in our own times, when the impulse to terror that engulfed Yezhov seems neither surprising nor unfamiliar.
Opera and the City: The Politics of Culture in Beijing, 1770-1900
By Andrea S. Goldman
Opera and the City: The Politics of Culture in Beijing, 1770-1900 uses opera as a lens through which to examine urban cultural history. The study offers a new approach to Chinese opera history; it contributes to our understanding of Qing urban culture; and it employs gender as a critical category of analysis in examining state-society relations under Qing rule. Through an examination of the context and content of opera in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Beijing, Opera and the City illuminates relationships between culture and power in the Qing dynasty capital, offering insight into how the state and various urban constituencies (officials, scholars, merchants, and petty urbanites) partook of opera and the stories played out on stage and manipulated them to their own ends. The opera theater was a key site of public discourse in the Qing metropolis; and in fulfilling that role, Goldman argues, it was also a site of competition, conflict, and controversy.
Bombay Islam: The Religious Economy of the Western Indian Ocean, 1840-1915
By Nile Green
As a thriving port city, nineteenth-century Bombay attracted migrants from across India and beyond. Nile Green's Bombay Islam traces the ties between industrialization, imperialism, and the production of religion to show how Muslim migration from the oceanic and continental hinterlands of Bombay in this period fueled demand for a wide range of religious suppliers, as Christian missionaries competed with Muslim religious entrepreneurs for a stake in the new market. Enabled by a colonial policy of non-intervention in religious affairs, and powered by steam travel and vernacular printing, Bombay's Islamic productions were exported as far as South Africa and Iran. Connecting histories of religion, labour, and globalization, the book examines the role of ordinary people - mill hands and merchants - in shaping the demand that drove the market. By drawing on hagiographies, travelogues, doctrinal works, and poems in Persian, Urdu, and Arabic, Bombay Islam unravels a vernacular modernity that saw people from across the Indian Ocean drawn into Bombay's industrial economy of enchantment.
Making Space: Sufis and Settlers in Early Modern India
By Nile Green
This volume provides a comprehensive view of the social transformation in early modern India between 1500 and 1750 by studying various Sufi movements. It covers a wide range of topics from Sufism and polity in the Afghan frontier to north Indian context and further to Deccan and the southernmost points of influence of the Mughals. Weaving together investigations of architecture with texts, migration of people, and the ethnographies and local histories, the author investigates community formation and inter-community contact. He reveals the tensions between mobility and locality through the ways Sufi Islam responded to demands of settlement by preserving the migrant bodies of blessed men and the shrines, texts and rituals that surrounded them. The book explores how Afghan, Mughal and Hindustani Muslims constructed new homelands while remembering distant places of origin. Central to this process were migrant Sufis and the hagiographical texts and architectural territories through which they preserved memory over time and anchored it to new spaces of settlement. The book offers bold new insights into Indian, Islamic and comparative early modern history.
Sufism: A Global History
By Nile Green
Since their beginnings in the ninth century, the shrines, brotherhoods and doctrines of the Sufis held vast influence in almost every corner of the Muslim world. Offering the first truly global account of the history of Sufism, this illuminating book traces the gradual spread and influence of Sufi Islam through the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and ultimately into Europe and the United States.
Encyclopedia of Chicago
Edited by James R. Grossman, Ann Durkin Keating and Janice L. Reiff
One of the great American metropolises, Chicago rises out of the prairie in the heart of the country, buffeted by winds coming off the plains and cooled by the waters of the inland sea of Lake Michigan. Chicago is a city of size and mass, the cradle of modern architecture, the freight hub of the nation, a city built on slaughterhouses and cacophonous financial trading tempered by some of the finest cultural institutions in the world. While many histories have been written of the city, none can claim the scope and breadth of the long-awaited Encyclopedia of Chicago. James R. Grossman is Vice President for Research and Education at the Newberry Library and senior lecturer in history at the University of Chicago. Ann Durkin Keating is professor of history at North Central College in Naperville, IL. Janice L. Reiff is associate professor of history and interim director of the Oral History Program at UCLA.
Indispensable Outcasts: Hobo Workers and Community in the American Midwest, 1880-1930 (Working Class in American History)
By Frank Tobias Higbie
Often overlooked in the history of Progressive Era labor, the hoboes who rode the rails in search of seasonal work have nevertheless secured a place in the American imagination. The stories of the men who hunted work between city and countryside, men alternately portrayed as either romantic adventurers or degenerate outsiders, have not been easy to find. Nor have these stories found a comfortable home in either rural or labor histories. Indispensable Outcasts weaves together history, anthropology, gender studies, and literary analysis to reposition these workers at the center of Progressive Era debates over class, race,manly responsibility, community, and citizenship.Combining incisive cultural criticism with the empiricism of a more traditional labor history, Frank Tobias Higbie illustrates how these so-called marginal figures were in fact integral to the communities they briefly inhabited and to the cultural conflicts over class, masculinity, and sexuality they embodied. He draws from life histories, the investigations of social reformers, and the organizing materials of the Industrial Workers of the World and presents a complex and compelling portrait of hobo life,from its often violent and dangerous working conditions to its ethic of 'transient mutuality' that enabled survival and resistance on the road. More than a study of hobo life, this interdisciplinary book is also a meditation on the possibilities for writing history from the bottom up, as well as a frank discussion of the ways historians' fascination with personal narrative has colored their construction and presentation of history.
The Politics of Dialogic Imagination
By Katsuya Hirano
In The Politics of Dialogic Imagination, Katsuya Hirano seeks to understand why, with its seemingly unrivaled power, the Tokugawa shogunate of early modern Japan tried so hard to regulate the ostensibly unimportant popular culture of Edo (present-day Tokyo)—including fashion, leisure activities, prints, and theater. He does so by examining the works of writers and artists who depicted and celebrated the culture of play and pleasure associated with Edo’s street entertainers, vagrants, actors, and prostitutes, whom Tokugawa authorities condemned to be detrimental to public mores, social order, and political economy.
Hirano uncovers a logic of politics within Edo’s cultural works that was extremely potent in exposing contradictions between the formal structure of the Tokugawa world and its rapidly changing realities. He goes on to look at the effects of this logic, examining policies enacted during the next era—the Meiji period—that mark a drastic reconfiguration of power and a new politics toward ordinary people under modernizing Japan. Deftly navigating Japan’s history and culture, The Politics of Dialogic Imaginationprovides a sophisticated account of a country in the process of radical transformation—and of the intensely creative culture that came out of it.
Armenian Baghesh/Bitlis and Taron/Mush
Edited by Richard Hovannisian
Armenian Baghesh/Bitlis and Taron/Mush is the second of the conference proceedings to be published. This beautiful, rugged land in the southwestern sector of historic Greater Armenia is known to have been one of the earliest centers of Armenian settlement. It was here that evolved Armenian Baghesh and Taron, which became a part of the medieval principality of Turuberan and later the administrative districts of Bitlis and Mush.
Edited by Richard Hovannisian
Located in the southwestern sector of the plateau, Tsopk or Sophene (later Kharpert or Harput) had close ties with Mesopotamia and Syria, stood for centuries as a buffer zone beween rival empires, and served as a conduit for cultural-political currents flowing in and out of Armenia. It both shares a history with and has a history distinct from that of Greater Armenia lying to the east. Below the great citadel of Kharpert is a fertile plain, traversed by tributaries and branches of the Aratsani or Eurphrates River. For the Armenians, the shimmering waters and the waves of grain made this their Voski Dasht—Golden Plain.
Edited by Richard Hovannisian and George Sabagh
George Makdisi has brought together six of the most distinguished scholars in the field to explore the religion and culture of medieval Islam. This is an original and stimulating exchange. Makdisi's introductory essay focuses on the interaction between religion and culture in classical Islam and Christendom, Merlin Swartz analyses the homilies of Ibn al-Jawazi, Irfan Shahid considers the implications of the Arabic character of the Koran, George Saliba assesses Ash'arite thought in astrology and astronomy, Roger Arnaldez reflects on the religious cultures of medieval Islam, and Mahmoud Ayoub draws together the common historic threads of Muslim-Jewish and Muslim-Christian popular worship. W. Montgomery Watt concludes the volume by addressing the question of the future of Islam, posing a parallel with the Judaic reaction to Hellenistic culture.
What Hath God Wrought
By Daniel Walker Howe
Howe's panoramic narrative portrays revolutionary improvements in transportation and communications that accelerated the extension of the American empire. Railroads, canals, newspapers, and the telegraph dramatically lowered travel times and spurred the spread of information. These innovations prompted the emergence of mass political parties and stimulated America's economic development from an overwhelmingly rural country to a diversified economy in which commerce and industry took their place alongside agriculture. In history, the author weaves together political and military events with social, economic, and cultural history. He examines the rise of Andrew Jackson and his Democratic party, but contends that John Quincy Adams and other Whigs-advocates of public education and economic integration, defenders of the rights of Indians, women, and African Americans-were the true prophets of America's future. He reveals the power of religion to shape many aspects of American life during this period, including slavery and antislavery, women's rights and other reform movements, politics, education, and literature. Howe's story of American expansion culminates in the bitterly controversial but brilliantly executed war waged against Mexico to gain California and Texas for the United States.
Measuring Time, Making History
By Lynn Avery Hunt
First volume of the Natalie Zemon Davis Annual Lecture Series at Central European University, this small but rich book contains three lectures delivered at CEU. Explores some of the ways in which time matters or should matter to historians. Like everyone else, historians assume that time exists, yet despite its obvious importance to historical writing--what is history but the account of how things change over time?--writers of history do not often inquire into the meaning of time itself. Hunt asks a series of related questions about time in history. Why is time now again on the agenda, for historians and more generally in Western culture? How did Western Christian culture develop its distinctive way of measuring time (BC/AD or BCE/CE) and how does it influence our notion of history? What is the role of modernity--our most contentious temporal category--in the historical discipline? Is modernity an experience of temporal ty or an ideological construction? Are modernity, the discipline of history, and even the notion of history itself a western, and therefore imperialist, imposition? Should we,can we, move beyond the modern within the historical discipline?
In Praise of Ordinary People: Early Modern Britain and the Dutch Republic
Edited by Margaret Jacob and Catherine Secretan
The discipline of social history has for many decades focused on the lives of so-called "ordinary" people. Less studied, however, has been the ways in which the perceptions and roles of these individuals changed over time - both in historical theory and practice. In particular, in Europe beginning in the sixteenth century, they were no longer simply ignored, feared, or denigrated by elites: they came to be seen, however cautiously, as having value through their skills and crafts, or in their ability to reason, or even in their contributions to anchoring the stability of the state. It is not accidental that these sorts of practices on the part of ordinary people became valorized more visibly in the English and Dutch contexts. After 1550 the Dutch Revolt cast ordinary people, particularly in urban settings, as participants on either the Catholic Spanish side or among the Dutch rebels and their reformed churches. Meanwhile, the English civil wars of the 1640s did something similar, and also produced a body of theoretical literature on the capacities of ordinary men and even women that became central to Western democratic thinking. In the fascinating array of studies gathered here, we see how the study of these participants' social identities imparts historical texture and enables us to understand early modernity with greater clarity.
The First Knowledge Economy: Human Capital and the European Economy, 1750-1850
Ever since the Industrial Revolution, debate has raged about the sources of the new, sustained Western prosperity. Margaret Jacob here argues persuasively for the critical importance of knowledge in Europe's economic transformation during the period from 1750 to 1850, first in Britain and then in selected parts of Northern and Western Europe. This is a new history of economic development in which minds, books, lectures, and education become central. She shows how, armed with knowledge and know-how and inspired by the desire to get rich, entrepreneurs emerged within an industrial culture wedded to scientific knowledge and technology. She charts how, across a series of industries and nations, innovative engineers and entrepreneurs sought to make sense and a profit out of the world around them. Skilled hands matched minds steeped in the knowledge systems new to the eighteenth century to transform the economic destiny of Western Europe.
Two French Protestant refugees in eighteenth-century Amsterdam gave the world an extraordinary work that intrigued and outraged readers across Europe. In this captivating account, Lynn Hunt, Margaret Jacob, and Wijnand Mijnhardt take us to the vibrant Dutch Republic and its flourishing book trade to explore the work that sowed the radical idea that religions could be considered on equal terms.
Famed engraver Bernard Picart and author and publisher Jean Frederic Bernard produced The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of All the Peoples of the World, which appeared in the first of seven folio volumes in 1723. They put religion in comparative perspective, offering images and analysis of Jews, Catholics, Muslims, the peoples of the Orient and the Americas, Protestants, deists, freemasons, and assorted sects. Despite condemnation by the Catholic Church, the work was a resounding success. For the next century it was copied or adapted, but without the context of its original radicalism and its debt to clandestine literature, English deists, and the philosophy of Spinoza.
Ceremonies and Customs prepared the ground for religious toleration amid seemingly unending religious conflict, and demonstrated the impact of the global on Western consciousness. In this beautifully illustrated book, Hunt, Jacob, and Mijnhardt cast new light on the profound insight found in one book as it shaped the development of a modern, secular understanding of religion.
The Self-Perception of Early Modern "Capitalist"
Edited by Margaret C. Jacob and Catherine Secretan
The term “capitalist” appears only late in the eighteenth century as a way of describing the speculating or commercial classes. Yet money was ubiquitous in early modern Europe. The goal of this conference is to examine how people who sought to make it, struggled to acquire and keep it, viewed themselves. They operated in cities great and small, in capitals of trade such as Venice, Hamburg,Antwerp, London, Amsterdam, Lyon, and Marseille, but also in Leeds and The Hague. How did they explain themselves; how did they understand their worldly activities? How did they cope with a culture that had for so long opposed material wealth to spiritual possessions, earthly pursuits to the spiritual realm? This sort of “self perception” can be read directly from the writings of merchants themselves (through their memories, letters, addresses) and also it can be found in legitimating discourses employed by contemporaries interested in valorizing trade. Our work has been informed by Weber on Protestantism and capitalism,yet we propose to access a new vocabulary, based on the sources and taking into account also Catholic and Sephardic merchants.
By Margaret Jacob and Larry Stewart
Margaret Jacob and Larry Stewart examine the profound transformation that began in 1687. From the year when Newton published his Principia to the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851, science gradually became central to Western thought and economic development. The book aims at a general audience and examines how, despite powerful opposition on the Continent, a Newtonian understanding gained acceptance and practical application. By the mid-eighteenth century the new science had achieved ascendancy, and the race was on to apply Newtonian mechanics to industry and manufacturing. They end the story with the temple to scientific and technological progress that was the Crystal Palace exhibition. Choosing their examples carefully, Jacob and Stewart show that there was nothing preordained or inevitable about the centrality awarded to science. "It is easy to forget that science might have been stillborn, or remained the esoteric knowledge of court elites. Instead, for better and for worse, science became a centerpiece of Western culture."
Strangers Nowhere in the World: The Rise of Cosmopolitanism in Early Modern Europe
By Margaret Jacob
Jacob investigates what it meant to be cosmopolitan in Europe during the early modern period. Then--as now--being cosmopolitan meant the ability to experience people of different nations, creeds, and colors with pleasure, curiosity, and interest. Yet such a definition did not come about automatically, nor could it always be practiced easily by those who embraced its principles. Cosmopolites had to strike a delicate balance between the transgressive and the subversive, the radical and the dangerous, the open-minded and the libertine. Jacob traces the history of this precarious balancing act to illustrate how ideals about cosmopolitanism were eventually transformed into lived experiences and practices. From the representatives of the Inquisition who found the mixing of Catholics and Protestants and other types of "border crossing" disruptive to their authority to the struggles within urbane masonic lodges to open membership to Jews, Jacob also charts the moments when the cosmopolitan impulse faltered.
Les Lumieres Au Quotidien
By Margaret Jacob
This French translation of Jacob’s award-winning Living the Enlightenment (1991) makes available to a wider audience a study of the interaction between freemasonry and politics throughout Western Europe from the 1720s to the 1790s. It is based upon archival sources used for the first time in the original edition.
By Russell Jacoby
Throughout history and across cultures, the most common form of violence is that between family members and neighbors or kindred communities—in civil wars writ large and small. From assault to genocide, from assassination to massacre, violence usually emerges from inside the fold. You have more to fear from a spouse, an ex-spouse, or a coworker than you do from someone you don’t know.
In this brilliant polemic, Russell Jacoby argues that violence erupts most often, and most savagely, between those of us most closely related. An Indian nationalist assassinated Mohandas Gandhi, “the father” of India. An Egyptian Muslim assassinated Anwar Sadat, the president of Egypt and a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. An Israeli Jew assassinated Yitzhak Rabin, the Israeli prime minister and similarly a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. Genocide most often involves kindred groups. The German Christians of the 1930s were so closely intertwined with German Jews that a yellow star was required to tell the groups apart. Serbs and Muslims in Bosnia, like the Hutu and Tutsi in Rwanda, are often indistinguishable even to one another.
This idea contradicts both common sense and the collective wisdom of teachers and preachers, who declaim that we fear—and sometimes should fear—the “other,” the dangerous stranger. Citizens and scholars alike believe that enemies lurk in the street and beyond, where we confront a “clash of civilizations” with foreigners who challenge our way of life. Jacoby offers a more unsettling truth: it is not so much the unknown that threatens us, but the known. We attack our brothers—our kin, our acquaintances, our neighbors—with far greater regularity and venom than we attack outsiders.
Weaving together the biblical story of Cain and Abel, Freud’s “narcissism of minor differences,” insights on anti-Semitism and misogyny, as well as fresh analyses of “civil” bloodbaths from the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in the sixteenth century to genocide and terrorism in our own time, Jacoby turns history inside out to offer a provocative new understanding of violent confrontation over the centuries. “In thinking about the bad, we reach for the good,” he says in his Introduction. This passionate, counterintuitive account affords us an unprecedented insight into the roots of violence.
By Russell Jacoby
A frequent reviewer for the Nation and the Los Angeles Times Book Review, UCLA historian here follows up on his The End of Utopia: Politics and Culture in an Age of Apathy with a historically nuanced polemic. In four beautifully crafted, highly allusive essays, Jacoby excavates a plethora of utopian movements, with an emphasis on Jewish traditions and thinkers, with the aim of getting readers to dream of a better world. The first chapter immediately confronts the 20th century's giant utopian failure: totalitarianism in its various forms. The second chapter details philosophical (and particularly liberal) objections to utopian thought generally. The next chapter concentrates on Zionism as it was originally envisioned, moving from Mordechai Noah and Theodor Herzl to Martin Buber, Gustav Landauer and Fritz Mauthner. The last chapter, "A Longing that Cannot Be Uttered", treats god as a kind of utopia, looks at a variety of Jewish approaches to the sacred.
The Embedded Corporation
By Sanford Jacoby
The book's vantage point for exploring the varieties of capitalism is the headquarters of large corporations--in particular, their human resources departments, where changes in markets and technology turn into corporate labor policies affecting millions of workers. Jacoby reveals the inner workings of these departments. Despite some cross-fertilization, Japanese and American corporations maintain distinctive approaches to human resource management, with Japanese HR departments occupying a more central position within the corporation. As Jacoby shows, this has important consequences for how firms compete, for corporate governance, and even for the level of inequality in Japan and the United States. The Embedded Corporation is a major contribution to our understanding of comparative management and the relationship between business, society, and the global economy.
By Nikki Keddie
In this updated edition of Modern Iran itself a substantially revised and expanded version of her classic work Roots of Revolution the author provides a new preface and a fully annotated and indexed epilogue, reviewing recent developments in Iran since 2003. Keddie provides insightful commentary on Iran's nuclear and foreign policy, its relations with the United Nations and the United States, increasing conservative and hard-line tendencies in the government, and recent developments in the economy, cultural and intellectual life, and human rights.
Women in the Middle East: Past and Present
By Nikki Keddie
Written by a pioneer in the field of Middle Eastern women's history, Women in the Middle East is a concise, comprehensive, and authoritative history of the lives of the region's women since the rise of Islam. Nikki Keddie shows why hostile or apologetic responses are completely inadequate to the diversity and richness of the lives of Middle Eastern women, and she provides a unique overview of their past and rapidly changing present. The book also includes a brief autobiography that recounts Keddie's political activism as one of the first women in Middle East Studies. Positioning women within their individual economic situations, identities, families, and geographies, Keddie's book examines the experiences of women in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, in Iran, and in all the Arab countries. She discusses the interaction of a changing Islam with political, cultural, and socioeconomic developments. In doing so, she shows that, like other major religions, Islam incorporated ideas and practices of male superiority but also provoked challenges to them. Keddie breaks with notions of Middle Eastern women as faceless victims, and assesses their involvement in the rise of modern nationalist, socialist, and Islamist movements. While acknowledging that conservative trends are strong, she notes that there have been significant improvements in Middle Eastern women's suffrage, education, marital choice, and health.
Africa Speaks, America Answers: Modern Jazz in Revolutionary Times
By Robin D.G. Kelley
This collective biography of four jazz musicians from Brooklyn, Ghana, and South Africa demonstrates how modern Africa reshaped jazz, how modern jazz helped form a new African identity, and how musical convergences and crossings altered the politics and culture of both continents.
The Oxford Anthology of the Modern Indian City: Making and Unmaking the City; Politics, Culture, and Life Forms
By Vinay Lal
The city of modern India is a web of identities, interests, and institutions. Perhaps the city everywhere gives the impression of being unfinished, as people come and go, talking of this and that, but in India the sense of a place on the make is overwhelming. Our colonial cities—Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras—helped redefine our very understanding of Indian culture; the villagers trooping into the city have further reshaped it in their image.
For all the beauty a city may hold, its character flows more from its street life and the intricate patterning of social networks. Some people claim the city as their own, and live as if they own it; some disown the city, and yet others are disowned by it. Violence appears to be present at every corner, and yet the city is the nexus of art, culture, and conviviality. The city is always full of surprises, having multiple selves, varying by day and by night. Together with its companion volume, The City in its Plenitude, this anthology— a collection of writings from across the genres of poetry, short stories, essays, and social commentaries drawn from English as well as the rich literature in Indian languages—is a tribute to the modern Indian city.
The Oxford Anthology of the Modern Indian City: The City in its Plenitude
By Vinay Lal
Banaras, Bangalore, Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, Lucknow . . . cities all, sharing certain characteristics, and yet so unlike each other. Cities are like the people they hold—loved and unloved, likely to attract some and repel others. Each has a character of its own: some are laidback, others more vibrant; a few have witnessed and endured a lot, others appear to have had a relatively mundane existence.
The city has a long history in India—from the urban civilization of the Indus Valley in 2500 bce to the megalopolis found in contemporary India. Taking the reader through an alluring maze of streets, lanes, memories, and much more, the writings in this volume allow her to gaze at the mosaic and imaginary of the city, look back at the city in colonial India, and reflect on the city and its streets as a work of architecture. Together with its companion volume, Making and Unmaking the City: Politics, Culture, and Life Forms, this collection pays tribute to the modern Indian city.
Deewar: The Footpath, The City, and the Angry Young Man
By Vinay Lal
Yash Chopra’s 1975 film, Deewaar, arguably the most iconic and influential work of the superstar Amitabh Bachchan, has been (to borrow one of its most memorable lines) the ‘lambi race ka ghoda’ [literally, the horse that wins the long race; the horse with, as it were, staying power], enjoying a nearly unrivalled popularity in the long history of Hindi cinema. Its remarkable plot, scripted by Salim-Javed, crisp dialogues, cinematic brilliance, and epic narrative structure, revolving around the familiar story of two brothers whose paths diverge and lead to a fatal collusion, has endeared it to millions. Its most famous line, ‘Mere paas ma hai’ (‘I have mother’), has been endlessly imitated, parodied, and referenced in myriad cinematic and cultural works. However, as Vinay Lal demonstrates in his reading of Deewaar, the film lends itself to much more complex readings than is commonly imagined. Against the backdrop of the history of Hindi cinema, the migrations from the hinterland to the city, and the political and socio-economic climate of the early 1970s, he draws attention to Deewaar’s dialectic of the footpath and skyscraper, the significance of the signature and writing, and the film’s deep structuring in mythic material. He concludes with a short assessment of Deewaar’s unique place in popular Indian culture as much as world cinema.
Dissenting Knowledges, Open Futures: The Multiple Selves and Strange Destinations
By Vinay Lal
Political psychologist, cultural theorist, sociologist, and much more, Ashis Nandy is unquestionably one of the country’s most exciting and original thinkers. For over three decades, he has resisted the straightjacket of received ideologies, deploying the tactics of a street fighter against impersonal institutional structures. In his own inimitable way, Nandy has provided trenchant critiques of modernity, spoken for the disenfranchised and silenced, and unsettled established ideas. This volume includes a rare selection of his writings as well as analytical perspectives on his work by a varied cast of public intellectuals, among them literary critics, a film theorist, a historian of Chinese intellectual history, and a historian of the subaltern school. It is prefaced by a lively dialogue between Nandy and the editor, which invites the reader to canvas the writings and intellectual interests of this versatile thinker.
Introducing Hinduism: A Graphic Guide
By Vinay Lal
Hinduism is the world’s oldest religion, yet the word ‘Hindu’ was never used before the 18th-century by Hindus to describe themselves. It is defined as polytheistic, but Gandhi declared that a Hindu needn’t believe in any god. It is a religion as much of myth as of history – it has no founder, no single authoritative book, even few central doctrines. Introducing Hinduism offers a guide to the key philosophical, literary, mythological and cultural traditions of this extraordinarily diverse faith, giving equal consideration to texts and everyday practices. It untangles the complexities of Hinduism’s gods and goddesses, its caste system and its views on sex, everyday life and asceticism. Why do Hindus revere the cow? Must Hindus be vegetarian?
Political Hinduism: The Religious Imagination in Public Spheres
By Vinay Lal
Political Hinduism looks at the numerous ways in which Hinduism might be described as having become ‘political’ since the upsurge of Hindu nationalism in the late nineteenth century. Recent studies of Hindu nationalism have mostly focused on Hindutva, and in particular on the activities, organizational structure, and politics of the Hindu right. This book argues that ‘Political Hinduism’ is much more than Hindutva. The essays by established scholars of Indian history, politics, and culture address issues of topical relevance: transmission of Hinduism to the United States; Gandhi’s religious politics and secularism; disputes over ‘Vande Mataram’ and its immensely rich history; Rajagopalachari’s multiple tellings of the Ramkatha; popular patriotism in Hindi cinema; and much more. Exploring the relationship between Hinduism and popular culture, this volume revisits familiar figures—Bankimchandra, Tilak, Gandhi, Rajagopalachari, Savarkar, and Narayana Guru, among others—to investigate the politics of knowledge embedded in their ideas.
The Other Indians: A Cultural and Political History of South Asians in America
By Vinay Lal
The Indian diaspora today, more so than ever before, is an incontestable fact of world culture. Diverse Indian communities scattered across the globe now complement the nineteenth century diaspora of indentured laborers and traders, and nowhere has the growth of the Indian diaspora registered such a phenomenal increase as in the United States. This book offers a crisp and politically engaged narrative of the social and cultural history of Indian Americans: commencing with the circulation of ideas about India in America, it considers such phenomena as the Ghadr movement, the struggles over rights of citizenship, the reification of 'Indian Culture', the emergence of 'temple Hinduism' and the attempts by NRIs to influence the course of events in India.
Colliers Across the Sea
By John Laslett
This masterful study charts the extensive common ground and telling differences between two widely separated coal-mining communities: Lanarkshire, in the Clyde Valley of southwest Scotland, and the northern Illinois coalfield that became a prime destination for skilled Scottish migrant miners in the mid-nineteenth century.
The Trans Saharan Book Trade
By Ghislaine Lydon
On Trans-Saharan Trails: Islamic Law, Trade Networks and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Nineteenth-Century Western Africa
By Ghislaine Lydon
Money, Trains, and Guillotines
By William Marotti
During the 1960s a group of young artists in Japan challenged official forms of politics and daily life through interventionist art practices. William Marotti situates this phenomenon in the historical and political contexts of Japan after the Second World War and the international activism of the 1960s. The Japanese government renewed its Cold War partnership with the United States in 1960, defeating protests against a new security treaty through parliamentary action and the use of riot police. Afterward, the government promoted a depoliticized everyday world of high growth and consumption, creating a sanitized national image to present in the Tokyo Olympics of 1964. Artists were first to challenge this new political mythology. Marotti examines their political art, and the state's aggressive response to it. He reveals the challenge mounted in projects such as Akasegawa Genpei's 1,000-yen prints, a group performance on the busy Yamanote train line, and a plan for a giant guillotine in the Imperial Plaza. Focusing on the annual Yomiuri Indépendant exhibition, he demonstrates how artists came together in a playful but powerful critical art, triggering judicial and police response. Money, Trains, and Guillotines expands our understanding of the role of art in the international 1960s, and of the dynamics of art and policing in Japan.
City Girls - The Nisei Social World in Los Angeles, 1920-1950
By Valerie Matsumoto
Even before wartime incarceration, Japanese Americans largely lived in separate cultural communities from their West Coast neighbors. Although the Nisei children, the American-born second generation, were U.S. citizens and were integrated in public schools, they were socially isolated in many ways from their peers. These young women found rapport in ethnocultural youth organizations, a forgotten world of female friendship and camaraderie that Valerie J. Matsumoto recovers in this book.
The Ancient Roman World
By Ronald Mellor and Marni McGee
Numerous books deal with ancient Rome, but this volume from the World in Ancient Times series has the advantage of being more readable, more complete, and more attractive than most. Printed on thick, white paper and with full-color photos, the book begins with the founding of Rome (and the legends surrounding it) and includes chapters on important figures, such as Julius Caesar, Augustus, Hadrian, and on such topics as the Etruscans, the evolution of the republic, Greek influences, slavery, and the rise of Christianity. The book is more accessible than many volumes on the subject; the writing is quite engaging, with plenty of sourced quotations. It's a promising start to a new series, to be followed by volumes on China and Greece, which will also be written by a historian in tandem with an author who writes for young adults.
Acculturation and Its Discontents: The Italian Jewish Experience Between Exclusion and Integration
By David N. Myers, Massimo Ciavolella, Peter H. Reill
Exploring the fascinating cross-culturalinfluences between Jews and Christians in Italy from the Renaissance to the twentieth century, "Acculturation and Its Discontents"assembles essays by leading historians, literary scholars, and musicologists to present a well-rounded history of Italian Jewry.The contributors offer rich portraits of the many vibrant forms of cultural and artistic expression that Italian Jews contributed to, and this volume also pays close attention to the ways in which Italian Jews - both freely and under pressure - creatively adapted to the social, cultural, and legal norms of the surrounding society. Tracing both the triumphs and tragedies of Jewish communities within Italy over a broad span of time, "Acculturation and Its Discontents" challenges conventional assumptions about assimilation and state intervention and, in the process, charts the complex process of cultural exchange that left such a distinctive imprint not only on Italian Jewry, but also on Italian society itself.This collection of rigorous and thought-provoking essays makes a major contribution to both the history of Italian culture and the cultural influence and significance of European Jews.
Resisting History: Historicism and Its Discontents in German-Jewish Thought
By David Myers
Nineteenth-century European thought, especially in Germany, was increasingly dominated by a new historicist impulse to situate every event, person, or text in its particular context. At odds with the transcendent claims of philosophy and--more significantly--theology, historicism came to be attacked by its critics for reducing human experience to a series of disconnected moments, each of which was the product of decidedly mundane, rather than sacred, origins. By the late nineteenth century and into the Weimar period, historicism was seen by many as a grinding force that corroded social values and was emblematic of modern society's gravest ills. Resisting History examines the backlash against historicism, focusing on four major Jewish thinkers. David Myers situates these thinkers in proximity to leading Protestant thinkers of the time, but argues that German Jews and Christians shared a complex cultural and discursive world best understood in terms of exchange and adaptation rather than influence.
The Unknown American Revolution
By Gary Nash
The history of the American Revolution that most of us have absorbed is but a fable, writes UCLA historian Gary Nash. In this insightful, challenging antidote to historical amnesia, Nash (Race and Revolution) deftly illustrates that while the Revolution has been implanted in our collective memory as the idealized Glorious Cause, in reality it was more a chaotic and bloody civil war, replete with fragile alliances, a multitude of fronts and clashing cultures. He especially succeeds in detailing the crucial role and often overlooked plight of Native Americans, adding the obscure names of men such as Cornplanter, Dragging Canoe and Mohawk chief Joseph Brant, who allied the Iroquois nation with the British, to the pantheon of the Revolution's players. By 1789 Washington was forced to commit a third of his army to destroying the Iroquois, explicitly ordering that their villages not be merely overrun but destroyed. Of course, Native Americans who remained neutral or fought alongside the Americans fared no better later at the hands of settlers. Tightly though densely written, this expertly researched tome shakes the stainless steel history of the American Revolution to its core.
Furnishing the Eighteenth Century
By Kathryn Norberg
Furnishing the 18th Century is a collection of original essays that delves into the history of furniture, examining every day items such as tea tables, jewelry boxes, dressers and sofas to uncover the social practices of the 18th century, including tea drinking, gambling, prostitution, conversation, and letter writing, both in Europe and in the colonies. The essays take serious consideration of what the furniture of one's house has to say about 18th century taste, social hierarchies, consumerism, gender, and even sex.
Fernand Braudel (1912-1985), was a leading French historian and author of, among other books, the groundbreaking The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II (1949). One of the founders of the Annales School in France, Braudel insisted on treating the Mediterranean region as a whole, irrespective of religious and national divides. Braudel's new historiography rejected political history as the dominant discipline and espoused a 'total history' or a 'history from below' that would tell the story of the vast majority of humanity hitherto excluded from the grand narrative. At the time of the book's appearance, this premise was revolutionary. The contributors to Braudel Revisited assess the impact of Braudel's work on today's academic world, in light of subsequent methodological shifts. Engaging with Braudel's texts as well as with his ideas, the essays in this volume speak to the enduring legacy of his work on the ongoing exploration of early modern history.
Piterberg, Returns of Zionism
By Gabriel Piterberg
In this original and wide-ranging study, Gabriel Piterberg examines the ideology and literature behind the colonization of Palestine, from the late nineteenth century to the present. Exploring Zionism’s origins in Central-Eastern European nationalism and settler movements, he shows how its texts can be placed within a wider discourse of western colonization. Revisiting the work of Theodor Herzl and Gershom Scholem, Anita Shapira and David Ben-Gurion, and bringing to light the writings of lesser-known scholars and thinkers influential in the formation of the Zionist myth, Piterberg breaks open prevailing views of Zionism, demonstrating that it was in fact unexceptional, expressing a consciousness and imagination typical of colonial settler movements. Shaped by European ideological currents and the realities of colonial life, Zionism constructed its own story as a unique and impregnable one, in the process excluding the voices of an indigenous people — the Palestinian Arabs.
Piterberg, An Ottoman Tragedy
By Gabriel Piterberg
In the space of six years early in the seventeenth century, the Ottoman Empire underwent such turmoil and trauma--the assassination of the young ruler Osman II, the re-enthronement and subsequent abdication of his mad uncle Mustafa I, for a start--that a scholar pronounced the period's three-day-long dramatic climax "an Ottoman Tragedy." Under Gabriel Piterberg's deft analysis, this period of crisis becomes a historical laboratory for the history of the Ottoman Empire in the seventeenth century--an opportunity to observe the dialectical play between history as an occurrence and experience and history as a recounting of that experience. Piterberg reconstructs the Ottoman narration of this fraught period from the foundational text, produced in the early 1620s, to the composition of the state narrative at the end of the seventeenth century. His work brings theories of historiography into dialogue with the actual interpretation of Ottoman historical texts, and forces a rethinking of both Ottoman historiography and the Ottoman state in the seventeenth century. A provocative reinterpretation of a major event in Ottoman history, this work reconceives the relation between historiography and history.
Athenian Political Oratory
By David Phillips
The celebrated orators and speeches of ancient Athens have been read and enjoyed for thousands of years. Focusing on the works of three of the greatest orators in history-Demosthenes, Lysias, and Hypereides-this collection of speeches is an indispensable source for anyone interested in classical civilization and literature, political science and rhetoric. Each of the three sections-The Thirty Tyrants, Philip and Athens, and Athens Under Alexander-includes an introduction providing an historical overview of the period and each speech is preceded by its own brief introduction. Rendered in lively, readable prose, the translations capture the energy, vigor and power of the originals.
Karl Pearson: The Scientfic Life in a Statistical Age
Karl Pearson, founder of modern statistics, came to this field by way of passionate early studies of philosophy and cultural history as well as ether physics and graphical geometry. His faith in science grew out of a deeply moral quest, reflected also in his socialism and his efforts to find a new basis for relations between men and women. This biography recounts Pearson's extraordinary intellectual adventure and sheds new light on the inner life of science.
Vitalizing Nature in the Enlightenment
This far-reaching study redraws the intellectual map of the Enlightenment and boldly reassesses the legacy of that highly influential period for us today. Peter Hanns Reill argues that in the middle of the eighteenth century, a major shift occurred in the way Enlightenment thinkers conceived of nature that caused many of them to reject the prevailing doctrine of mechanism and turn to a vitalistic model to account for phenomena in natural history, the life sciences, and chemistry. As he traces the ramifications of this new way of thinking through time and across disciplines, Reill provocatively complicates our understanding of the way key Enlightenment thinkers viewed nature. His sophisticated analysis ultimately questions postmodern narratives that have assumed a monolithic Enlightenment--characterized by the dominance of instrumental reason--that has led to many of the disasters of modern life.
Spain's Centuries of Crisis: 1300-1474
By Teofilo Ruiz
This book is a comprehensive history of Spain from the turn of the fourteenth century to the union of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon in 1474. In the early 1300s instabilities threatened to undermine Spain's basic social, economic, political, and cultural structures. This text focuses on the crises of Spain in the late middle ages, ranging from plague and famine to violence and civil war. It considers the early transformations that underpinned the country's later successes and describes resolutions to the country's hardships brought about by the reforms of the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, in the late 1470s. The book examines the administrative changes and cultural revival that readied Spain for the opportunities and challenges of the oncoming early modern Age of Discovery.
From Heaven to Earth
By Teofilo Ruiz
Between the late 12th century and the mid-14th, Castile saw a reordering of mental, spiritual, and physical space. Fresh ideas about sin and intercession coincided with new ways of representing the self and emerging perceptions of property as tangible. This radical shift in values or mentalités was most evident among certain social groups, including mercantile elites, affluent farmers, lower nobility, clerics, and literary figures--"middling sorts" whose outlooks and values were fast becoming normative. Drawing on such primary documents as wills, legal codes, land transactions, litigation records, chronicles, and literary works, Teofilo Ruiz documents the transformation in how medieval Castilians thought about property and family at a time when economic innovations and an emerging mercantile sensibility were eroding the traditional relation between the two. He also identifies changes in how Castilians conceived of and acted on salvation and in the ways they related to their local communities and an emerging nation-state. Ruiz interprets this reordering of mental and physical landscapes as part of what Le Goff has described as a transition "from heaven to earth," from spiritual and religious beliefs to the quasi-secular pursuits of merchants and scholars. Examining how specific groups of Castilians began to itemize the physical world, Ruiz sketches their new ideas about salvation, property, and themselves--and places this transformation within the broader history of cultural and social change in the West.
Spanish Society, 1400-1800
By Teofilo Ruiz
This is a fascinating account of Spain's passage from the Middle Ages to modernity. From the 'street theatre' of village carnivals to the violence of the Spanish Inquisition, and revealing everyday life from the court to the brothel, Spanish Society 1400 - 1600 explores the changing relationships between society's haves and have-nots. With pen portraits of major historical figures such as St Teresa and Torquemada, and including sections on diet and health, honor and sexuality, Ruiz paints a vivid picture of a passionate history that includes stories and vignettes about real people and events which brings the period to life. For those interested in Spanish history.
Medieval Europe and the World
By Robin Winks and Teofilo Ruiz
Medieval Europe and the World: From Late Antiquity to Modernity, 400-1500 examines the development of western European social, political, economic, and cultural institutions during one of the most complex and creative periods the world has ever known. The book looks at the history of Medieval Europe in relation to its links with the rest of the world, exploring the interaction of western Europe with Islam, the Far East, Africa, and such outlying areas as Scandinavia, Iberia, and Eastern Europe. It considers the genesis and shaping of distinct western ideals, social affairs, economic patterns, and new cultural forms in relation to Islam and Byzantium--two other great civilizations that deeply influenced the growth of western Europe's unique history. Placing emphasis on medieval Europe's social and economic transformations and the diversity of social orders, the book analyzes the ways in which these elements interconnected during the formation of medieval society. It also gives special consideration to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, an era that serves as a bridge between the cultural developments of the early and central Middle Ages and the emergence of new patterns of thought and social organization in the late medieval period.
Vietnam: Past and Present
By D. R. SarDesai
In this new edition, D. R. SarDesai pays particular attention to the normalization of U.S.-Vietnamese relations, Vietnam's policy of economic liberalization, the role of industrialized nations in the globalization of Vietnam's economy, and Vietnam's growing participation with the Allied countries of the Pacific region. A new chapter on the Vietnamese-American community in the United States is also included. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
Van Gogh and Gauguin: The Search for Sacred Art
By Debora Silverman
Debora Silverman's book enables the reader to see van Gogh's and Gauguin's art--from the familiar masterpieces of Arles, Nuenen, Tahiti to lesser-known drawings and objects--in constantly new and surprising ways and to appreciate the special character of their nineteenth-century cultures and contexts. This book, the first of its kind, opens up an unmined terrain of central importance: the relationship between religion and modernism.
Spectrum: From Right to Left in the World of Ideas
By Peter Stacey
Beginning with a sustained analysis of Seneca's theory of monarchy in the treatise De clementia, Peter Stacey traces the formative impact of ancient Roman political philosophy upon medieval and Renaissance thinking about princely government on the Italian peninsula, from the time of Frederick II to the early modern period. Roman Monarchy and the Renaissance Prince offers a systematic reconstruction of the pre-humanist and humanist history of the genre of political reflection known as the mirror-for-princes tradition - a tradition which, as Stacey shows, is indebted to Seneca's speculum above all other classical accounts of the virtuous prince - and culminates with a comprehensive and controversial reading of the greatest work of Renaissance monarchical political theory, Machiavelli's The Prince. Peter Stacey brings to light a story which has been lost from view in recent accounts of the Renaissance debt to classical antiquity, providing a radically revisionist account of the history of the Renaissance prince.
Sephardi Lives: A Documentary History, 1700-1950
By Sarah Abrevaya Stein
This ground-breaking documentary history contains over 150 primary sources originally written in 15 languages by or about Sephardi Jews—descendants of Jews who fled medieval Spain and Portugal settling in the western portions of the Ottoman Empire, including the Balkans, Anatolia, and Palestine. Reflecting Sephardi history in all its diversity, from the courtyard to the courthouse, spheres intimate, political, commercial, familial, and religious, these documents show life within these distinctive Jewish communities as well as between Jews, Muslims, and Christians.
Saharan Jews and the Fate of French Algeria
By Sarah Abrevaya Stein
The history of Algerian Jews has thus far been viewed from the perspective of communities on the northern coast, who became, to some extent, beneficiaries of colonialism. But to the south, in the Sahara, Jews faced a harsher colonial treatment. In Saharan Jews and the Fate of French Algeria, Sarah Abrevaya Stein asks why the Jews of Algeria’s south were marginalized by French authorities, how they negotiated the sometimes brutal results, and what the reverberations have been in the postcolonial era.
A Jewish Voice from Ottoman Salonica
By Sarah Abrevaya Stein and Aron Rodrigue
This book presents for the first time the complete text of the earliest known Ladino-language memoir, transliterated from the original script, translated into English, and introduced and explicated by the editors. The memoirist, Sa'adi Besalel a-Levi (1820–1903), wrote about Ottoman Jews' daily life at a time when the long-ascendant fabric of Ottoman society was just beginning to unravel. His vivid portrayal of life in Salonica, a major port in the Ottoman Levant with a majority-Jewish population, thus provides a unique window into a way of life before it disappeared as a result of profound political and social changes and the World Wars. Sa'adi was himself a prominent journalist and publisher, one of the most significant creators of modern Sephardic print culture. He was also a rebel, accusing the Jewish leadership of Salonica of being corrupt, abusive, and fanatical; that leadership, in turn, excommunicated him from the Jewish community. The experience of excommunication pervades Sa'adi's memoir, which documents a world that its author was himself actively involved in changing.
Plumes: Ostrich Feathers, Jews, and a Lost World of Global Commerce
By Sarah Abrevaya Stein
The thirst for exotic ornament among fashionable women in the metropoles of Europe and America prompted a bustling global trade in ostrich feathers that flourished from the 1880s until the First World War. When feathers fell out of fashion with consumers, the result was an economic catastrophe for many, a worldwide feather bust. In this remarkable book, Sarah Stein draws on rich archival materials to bring to light the prominent and varied roles of Jews in the feather trade. She discovers that Jews fostered and nurtured the trade across the global commodity chain and throughout the far-flung territories where ostriches were reared and plucked, and their feathers were sorted, exported, imported, auctioned, wholesaled, and finally manufactured for sale.
Making Jews Modern
By Sarah Abrevaya Stein
On the eve of the 20th century, Jews in the Russian and Ottoman empires were caught up in the major cultural and social transformations that constituted modernity for Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jewries. What did it mean to be Jewish and Russian, Jewish and Ottoman, Jewish and modern? To answer these questions, Sarah Abrevaya Stein explores the texts most widely consumed by Jewish readers: popular newspapers in Yiddish and Ladino. This skillful comparative study yields new perspectives on the role of print culture in imagining national and transnational communities and the diverse ways in which modernity was envisioned under the rule of empire.
The Contested Murder of Latasha Harlins: Justice, Gender, and the Origins of the L.A. Riots
By Brenda Stevenson
In The Contested Murder of Latasha Harlins, Brenda Stevenson tells the dramatic story of an earlier trial, one prior to the Rodney King case, which was a turning point on the road to the 1992 riot. On March 16, 1991, fifteen-year-old Latasha Harlins, an African American who lived locally, entered the Empire Liquor Market at 9172 South Figueroa Street in South Central Los Angeles. Behind the counter was a Korean woman named Soon Ja Du. Latasha walked to the refrigerator cases in the back, took a bottle of orange juice, put it in her backpack, and approached the cash register with two dollar bills in her hand-the price of the juice. Moments later she was face-down on the floor with a bullet hole in the back of her head, shot dead by Du. Joyce Karlin, a Jewish Superior Court judge appointed by Republican Governor Pete Wilson, presided over the resulting manslaughter trial. A jury convicted Du, but Karlin sentenced her only to probation, community service, and a $500 fine. The author meticulously reconstructs these events and their aftermath, showing how they set the stage for the explosion in 1992.
By Sanjay Subrahmanyam
Both individual agents and objects such as texts and paintings helped mediate encounters between courts, which possessed rules and conventions that required decipherment and translation, whether in words or in pictures. Sanjay Subrahmanyam gives special attention to the depiction of South Asian empires in European visual representations, finding a complex history of cultural exchange: the Mughal paintings that influenced Rembrandt and other seventeenth-century Dutch painters had themselves been earlier influenced by Dutch naturalism. Courtly Encounters provides a rich array of images from Europe, the Islamic world, India, and Southeast Asia as aids for understanding the reciprocal nature of cross-cultural exchanges. It also looks closely at how insults and strategic use of martyrdom figured in courtly encounters.
Explorations In Connected History
By Sanjay Subrahmanyam
This volume reflects on two and a half centuries of Mughal-European relations, beginning with the early sixteenth centruy and is based on extensive research into Portuguese, Dutch, English, French, and Persian materials of the period. It uses the idea of contained conflict to reject both the view of total cultural incompatibility between East and West, and the simplistic paradigm of partnership and mutual understanding proposed by some recent scholars.
Explorations In Connected History
By Sanjay Subrahmanyam
From the Tagus to the Ganges is a set of interlinked studies that deploys the concept of 'connected histories' to shed important light on aspects of the history of early modern Eurasia. These studies are based on a wide variety of Asian and European materials, and while their main focus is on relations between European and South Asia, other parts of the world also play a major role in the arguments. "History writing on South Asia has over time debated the politics of its sources. It has also confronted the assumptions underlying the periodization of Indian history. As reflected in this collection of essays, Subrahmanyam takes a sharp and discriminating look at the archive to challenge certain enduring beliefs regarding temporal and geographical frontiers in the task of history writing.
Indo-Persian Travels in the Age of Discoveries 1400-1800
By Sanjay Subrahmanyam
A groundbreaking work based on detailed and sensitive readings of travel accounts in Persian, dealing with India, Iran, and Central Asia between about 1400 and 1800. This is the first comprehensive treatment of this neglected genre of literature (safar nama) that links the Mughals, Safavids and Central Asia in a crucial period of transformation and cultural contact. The authors’ close reading of these travel-accounts help us enter the mental and moral worlds of the Muslim and non-Muslim literati who produced these valuable narratives. These accounts are presented in a comparative framework, which sets them side by side with other Asian accounts, as well as early modern European travel-narratives, and opens up a rich and unsuspected vista of cultural and material history. This book can be read for a better understanding of the nature of early modern encounters, but also for the sheer pleasure of entering a new world.
Writing the Mughal World
By Sanjay Subrahmanyam and Muzaffar Alam
Two leading historians of early modern South Asia present nine major joint essays on the Mughal Empire, framed by an important introductory reflection. Stretching from the mid-sixteenth to the early nineteenth century, this Indo-Islamic dynasty came to rule as far as Bengal in the east and Kabul in the west, as high as Kashmir in the north and the Kaveri basin in the south. The Mughals developed a sophisticated, complex system of government facilitating an era of profound artistic and architectural achievement. They promoted the place of Persian culture in Indian society and set the groundwork for South Asia's future trajectory. Making creative use of materials in Persian, Indian vernacular languages, and a variety of European languages, these chapters represent the most significant innovations in Mughal historiography in decades, intertwining political, cultural, and commercial themes while exploring diplomacy, state-formation, history-writing, religious debate, and political thought. They center on confrontations between different source materials that are then reconciled by the authors, enabling readers to participate both in the debate and the resolution of competing claims. The introduction discusses the comparative and historiographical approach of the work and its place within the literature on Mughal rule. Interdisciplinary and cutting-edge, this work adds rich dimensions to research on the Mughal state, early modern South Asia, and the comparative history of the Mughal, Ottoman, Safavid, and other early modern empires.
Three Ways to Be Alien: Travails and Encounters in the Early Modern World
By Sanjay Subrahmanyam
Sanjay Subrahmanyam’s Three Ways to Be Alien draws on the lives and writings of a trio of marginal and liminal figures cast adrift from their traditional moorings into an unknown world. The subjects include the aggrieved and lost Meale, a “Persian” prince of Bijapur (in central India, no less) held hostage by the Portuguese at Goa; English traveler and global schemer Anthony Sherley, whose writings reveal a surprisingly nimble understanding of realpolitik in the emerging world of the early seventeenth century; and Nicolò Manuzzi, an insightful Venetian chronicler of the Mughal Empire in the later seventeenth century who drifted between jobs with the Mughals and various foreign entrepôts, observing all but remaining the eternal outsider. In telling the fascinating story of floating identities in a changing world, Subrahmanyam also succeeds in injecting humanity into global history and proves that biography still plays an important role in contemporary historiography.
Is Indian Civilization a Myth: Fictions and Histories?
By Sanjay Subrahmanyam
In the title essay of this enthralling collection, Sanjay Subrahmanyam sets a provocative ball rolling: At the heart of the matter , he says, is the notion that at some distant point in the past, say about AD 500, the concept of Indian civilization had already been perfected. Everything of any importance was in place: social structure, philosophy, the major literary works ... The central idea here is of India-as-civilization, and it very soon becomes the same as a notion of closed India. Demolishing some of the myths which sustain the notion of the wonder that was India , he shows us a region that was always more a crossroads, a rendezvous for concepts, cultures, and worldviews. Subrahmanyam s book is itself a meeting point for a dazzling variety of ideas. It provides the cosmopolitan perspective of a multilingual world scholar who, having begun life in New Delhi, has gone on to live in several thought-provoking cities, including Paris, Lisbon, and Oxford. He is witty, debunking, iconoclastic, and polemically entertaining in all that he anatomizes here Indian history and fiction, South Asian cultural forms, imperialism and imperialists, secularism and Hindu nationalism, travel writing, and the central conceits in Hemingway, Rushdie, Naipaul, and Marquez.
Christopher Columbus and the Enterprise of the Indies
Edited by Geoffrey Symcox and Blair Sullivan
In 1492, previously separate worlds collided and began to merge, often painfully, into the world-system in which we live today. Columbus's four Atlantic voyages (1492-1504) helped link Africa, Europe, and the Americas in a conflicted economic and cultural symbiosis. These carefully selected documents describe the voyages and their immediate impact on Europe and the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean. Symcox and Sullivan's engaging introduction presents Columbus as neither hero nor villain, but as a significant historical actor who improvised responses to a changed world. Document headnotes provide context for understanding Columbus's voyages within the broader context of fifteenth-century Europe and the policies of the Spanish crown. Maps, illustrations, a chronology, questions for consideration, and a selected bibliography invite students to analyze and interpret the documents.
The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca
By Kevin Terraciano
This book is a history of the Mixtec Indians of southern Mexico, who in their own language call themselves Tay Ñudzahui, “people of the rain place.” These people were among the most populous cultural and language groups of Mesoamerica at the time of the Spanish conquest. This study focuses on several dozen Mixtec communities in the region of Oaxaca during the period from about 1540 to 1750.
The work is largely based on an extraordinary collection of primary sources, translated and analyzed by the author, that were written by Mixtecs in the roman alphabet from the mid-sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries. To complement this native-language corpus, the author has examined preconquest and early colonial pictorial writings, Spanish-language civil and trial records, and Nahuatl (Aztec) texts. This book won the 2002 Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin Award, sponsored by the American Society for Ethnohistory.
The Man Who Flattened Earth
By Mary Terrall
Self-styled adventurer, literary wit, philosopher, and statesman of science, Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698-1759) stood at the center of Enlightenment science and culture. Offering an elegant and accessible portrait of this remarkable man, Mary Terrall uses the story of Maupertuis's life, self-fashioning, and scientific works to explore what it meant to do science and to be a man of science in eighteenth-century Europe. Beginning his scientific career as a mathematician in Paris, Maupertuis entered the public eye with a much-discussed expedition to Lapland, which confirmed Newton's calculation that the earth was flattened at the poles. He also made significant, and often intentionally controversial, contributions to physics, life science, navigation, astronomy, and metaphysics. Called to Berlin by Frederick the Great, Maupertuis moved to Prussia to preside over the Academy of Sciences there. Equally at home in salons, cafes, scientific academies, and royal courts, Maupertuis used his social connections and his printed works to enhance a carefully constructed reputation as both a man of letters and a man of science. His social and institutional affiliations, in turn, affected how Maupertuis formulated his ideas, how he presented them to his contemporaries, and the reactions they provoked. Terrall not only illuminates the life and work of a colorful and important Enlightenment figure, but also uses his story to delve into many wider issues, including the development of scientific institutions, the impact of print culture on science, and the interactions of science and government.
Waugh, U.S. Grant- American Hero, American Myth
By Joan Waugh
At the time of his death, Ulysses S. Grant was the most famous person in America, considered by most citizens to be equal in stature to George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Yet today his monuments are rarely visited, his military reputation is overshadowed by that of Robert E. Lee, and his presidency is permanently mired at the bottom of historical rankings. In an insightful blend of biography and cultural history, Joan Waugh traces Grant's shifting national and international reputation, illuminating the role of memory in our understanding of American history. She captures a sense of what led nineteenth-century Americans to overlook Grant's obvious faults and hold him up as a critically important symbol of national reconciliation and unity. Waugh further shows that Grant's reputation and place in public memory closely parallel the rise and fall of the northern version of the Civil War story — in which the United States was the clear, morally superior victor and Grant was the emblem of that victory. After the failure of Reconstruction, the dominant Union myths about the war gave way to a southern version that emphasized a more sentimental remembrance of the honor and courage of both sides and ennobled the "Lost Cause." By the 1920s, Grant's reputation had plummeted. Most Americans today are unaware of how revered Grant was in his lifetime. Joan Waugh uncovers the reasons behind the rise and fall of his renown, underscoring as well the fluctuating memory of the Civil War itself.
The Citizen-Patient in Revolutionary and Imperial Paris
Dora B. Weiner
In The Citizen-Patient in Revolutionary and Imperial Paris, Dora B. Weiner examines the experiences of the sick and handicapped indigent men, women, and children in Paris during the French Revolution and Empire. Weiner argues that significant groups of Revolutionary physicians and reformers interpreted equality to include every citizen's right to health care. These reformers faced political, religious, and professional opposition, and daunting problems of funding. And they needed the participation of the poor as "citizen-patients," patients with both rights and duties, who acted as responsible partners in the pursuit and maintenance of public and personal health. Weiner surveys the 20,000 patients institutionalized in twenty Paris hospitals and hospices and explains how the Revolution changed the status and work of nurses, pharmacists, midwives, and students, as well as doctors. Clinical teaching, professional specialization, and approaches to public health were all affected. Weiner emphasizes health care for children, deaf and blind people, and mentally ill patients and underscores the role of women as administrators and dispensers of hospital care.
Comprendre Et Soigner
Dora B. Weiner
Comprendre et soigner (To understand and to treat: Philippe Pinel [1745-1826]: The medicine for the mind) is the result of many years of research on Pinel, universally regarded as the beginner of modern psychiatry, by Dora Weiner, a scholar who teaches history and human sciences at the University of California at Los Angeles. Weiner is closely involved with a group of French psychiatrists and historians attempting a reassessment of Pinel's life and work, which makes it natural for her book to have appeared in French.
Memoirs on Paris Hospitals
Dora B. Weiner
Memoirs on Paris Hospitals introduces the English-speaking reader to Jacques Tenon's classic text of the French Enlightenment and the basic reference work for hospital reformers and architects in France for over half a century.....written in a style appealing to the non-specialist general reader. This excellent edition by Dora B. Weiner strives to transmit the style and tone of a French masterwork dating from an age that raised fundamental issues still relevant for our times as we struggle with our own health care systems and hospital reforms.
Raspail, Scientist and Reformer
Dora B. Weiner
According to his great-granddaughter, Francois-Vincent Raspail's reason for beginning his botanical researches with grasses was at least partly because of "their humble, 'proletarian' place in the kingdom of nature." Even in his first choice of a scientific subject, therefore, Raspail demonstrated his democratic convictions. It is precisely this combination of science and democracy which provides the theme for Dora Weiner's major biography of this hitherto rather obscure individual. The two threads of science and democracy were inextricably bound together in the career of Raspail, but their union operated differently on either side of the watershed year of 1830. Prior to that date, Raspail's political views served primarily to keep him from pursuing formal studies and obtaining the normal academic credentials. After that time, they produced a rechanneling of his scientific efforts in the interest of the health of the poor.
Science Without Laws
M. Norton Wise
Physicists regularly invoke universal laws, such as those of motion and electromagnetism, to explain events. Biological and medical scientists have no such laws. How then do they acquire a reliable body of knowledge about biological organisms and human disease? One way is by repeatedly returning to, manipulating, observing, interpreting, and reinterpreting certain subjects—such as flies, mice, worms, or microbes—or, as they are known in biology, “model systems.” Across the natural and social sciences, other disciplinary fields have developed canonical examples that have played a role comparable to that of biology's model systems, serving not only as points of reference and illustrations of general principles or values but also as sites of continued investigation and reinterpretation. The essays in this collection assess the scope and function of model objects in domains as diverse as biology, geology, and history, attending to differences between fields as well as to epistemological commonalities. Contributors examine the ro le of the fruit fly Drosophila and nematode worms in biology, troops of baboons in primatology, box and digital simulations of the movement of the earth's crust in geology, and meteorological models in climatology. They analyze the intensive study of the prisoner's dilemma in game theory, ritual in anthropology, the individual case in psychoanalytic research, and Athenian democracy in political theory. The contributors illuminate the processes through which particular organisms, cases, materials, or narratives become foundational to their fields, and they examine how these foundational exemplars—from the fruit fly to Freud's Dora—shape the knowledge produced within their disciplines. Contributors are Rachel A. Ankeny, Angela N. H. Creager, Amy Dahan Dalmedico, John Forrester, Clifford Geertz, Carlo Ginzburg, E. Jane Albert Hubbard, Elizabeth Lunbeck, Mary S. Morgan, Josiah Ober, Naomi Oreskes, Susan Sperling, Marcel Weber, and M. Norton Wise.
Settlers, Liberty, and Empire: The Roots of Early American Political Theory 1675-1775
By Craig Yirush
Settlers, Liberty, and Empire traces the emergence of a revolutionary conception of political authority on the far shores of the eighteenth-century Atlantic world. Based on the equal natural right of English subjects to leave the realm, claim indigenous territory, and establish new governments by consent, this radical set of ideas culminated in revolution and republicanism. But unlike most scholarship on early American political theory, Craig Yirush does not focus solely on the revolutionary era of the late eighteenth century. Instead, he examines how the political ideas of settler elites in British North America emerged in the often-forgotten years between the Glorious Revolution in America and the American Revolution against Britain. By taking seriously an imperial world characterized by constitutional uncertainty, geo-political rivalry, and the ongoing presence of powerful Native American peoples, Yirush provides a long-term explanation for the distinctive ideas of the American Revolution.Back to the top